TC8701 Effluent Treatment and Pollution Control Notes

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UNIT I

Constituents of water and their effect on Textile wet processing
Water pollution
programmes which includes WHO, ISO standards for raw water criteria
Effluent discharge standards for inland surface water public sewers,
on land for irrigation,
marine coastal areas and drinking water parameters
Quality requirements of water for cotton and synthetic Textile processing .
Water softening .
Water analysis
Colour, pH value, dissolved solids,
suspended solids,
total hardness (Calcium + Magnesium)
EDTA method,
total iron-thiocyanate method, Alkalinity,
acidity , chlorides dissolved oxygen ,
BOD and COD.

UNIT II

Characteristics and treatment of cotton,
synthetics and wool processing effluents.
Reduction of pollution load.
Introduction
Textile Effluent treatment methods.
Primary treatment methods
screening, sedimentatation, equalisation, neutralisation, coagulation and flocculation.

UNIT III

Secondary treatment methods
Trickling filtration,
Activated sludge process,
aerated lagoons,
secondary sedimentation,
oxidation ponds,
Anaerobic Digestion,
sludge disposal,
removal of interfering substances in secondary biological treatment.

UNIT IV

Tertiary treatment
Evaporation (solar and steam).
Membrane technologies (MF, UF, NF & RO) ,
Reverse osmosis,
ion exchange and activated carbon treatment.
Model schematic diagram for
Wastewater treatment plant for textile mills
Primary and Secondary units & Tertiary treatments,
Quality parameters at entry and exit of RO.
Chlorine trioxide treatment,
ozone treatments, enzymatic decolourisation.

UNIT V

Air Pollution
Gaseous and Aerosols
Effects of air pollution
Effect of Sulphur oxide on human health
Properties of air pollutants
control of air pollutants
Air pollution control equipment
Ambient air quality standards
Emission limits at chimney level
Noise pollution
Types of noise (Steady state noise – Impulse noise)
ill effects of noise
Noise measurement
Control of noise pollution
Shape noise levels in decibels.

OUTCOMES

Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to

  • Understand the textile processing related causes for pollution
  • Understand the effluent discharge standards and different processes involved in waste
    water treatment

Perform the research and development to produce zero discharge effluents

TEXT BOOKS

  1. Rao,C.S., “Environment Pollution control Engineering”, New age International Ltd. and Publishers, N.Delhi, 2004.
  2. Reife, A., and Freeman, H.S., (Ed)., “Environmental chemistry of dyes and pigment”, Wiley., London, 2000, ISBN: 047158276.

REFERENCES

  1. Horrockks, A.R (Ed)., “Ecotextiles’98: Sustainable development”, The Text.Inst.,
    Manchester 1999, ISBN: 1855732426.
  2. Modak.P., “The textile industry and the environment”, UNEP:HMSO, Blackwells, Leeds,
    2003, ISBN: 9280713671