TC8503 Dyeing of Cellulosic Materials Notes

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Basic concept of dye and pigment,
Definition of affinity,
substantivity, reactivity, exhaustion,
depth of dyeing, percentage shade.
Concepts of exhaust and padding techniques of dyeing.
Basic mechanisms of dyeing techniques such as mechanical deposition,
chemical fixation.
Classification of dyes according to methods of application.
Influence of pretreatment on dyeing properties.


Direct dyes: General properties,
principles and method of application on cellulosic materials.
Classification dyeing of cellulosic materials.
Various after treatments to improve the wash fastness and light fastness.
Practical problems and their remedies.
Reactive dyes
Chemistry, concept of hot brand,
cold brand, HE and vinyl sulphone reactive dyes,
bifunctional and low salt reactive dyes,
principle steps involved in dyeing of cellulosic materials.
Practical problems remedy


Dyeing of Indigo (synthetic indigo).
Dyeing of cellulose materials with phthalogen blue, mineral khaki, aniline black, pigments. Azoic colours
Chemistry and general properties of Azoic colours
Concept of napthols and bases.


Sulphur dyes
Chemistry and general properties of sulphur dyes.
Principle steps involved in sulphur dyeing.
Shop floor practices of dyeing of cellulosic materials with sulphur dyes.
Stripping of sulphur dyes.
Practical problems and their remedies.


Vat dyes: Chemistry and general properties classification.
Principle steps involved in dyeing.
Various methods of application of on cellulosic yarn and fabric with vat dyes.
Stripping practical problems
dyeing and remedies.
Solubilised vat dyes: Chemistry and general properties
Principles steps involved in dyeing of cellulosic materials


Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to

  • Dye the cellulosic textiles with different dyes
  • Perform research and development in the field of dyeing of cellulosic textiles


  1. Shenai V.A. “Technology of Dyeing” l995, Sevak Publications, Mumbai.
  2. Shore,J. “Blend Dyeing”, SDC, London, 1998 ISBN: 0901956740.


  1. Madaras, G.W., Parish, G.J., and Shore,J, “Batchwise dyeing of woven cellulosic
    fabrics”, SDC, London, 1993, ISBN: 0901956554.
  2. Shore,J. “Cellulosic Dyeing”, SDC Publication, London, 1995 ISBN:0901956686.
  3. Chakraborty, J.N, “Fundamentals and Practices in colouration of Textiles”, Woodhead
    Publishing India, 2009, ISBN-13:978-81-908001-4-3.